Academic Journal of Modern Philology vol. 2 (2013)
Opole University of Technology
Calquing English Terminology into Polish
This paper focuses on the question of calquing or loan translation. Basic tendencies in the fi eld of borrowing are presented, one of which is to preserve loanwords while the other one to form calques. Various defi nitions of calquing are included along with the common distinction between semantic and structural calques understood in terms of polysemy and creation of new linguistic entities. Problems with borrowing and calquing are indicated on the basis of traditional classifi cations. The discussion leads to a newer classifi cation which is derived from Carstensen and Busse (1994), i.e. one which leads to the distinction between calques and loan formations. Examples to indicate the accuracy of both categories are derived from computer terminology: both doublett es and various degree of translation. This part is based on a corpus study of text in Gazeta Wyborcza. Two tendencies are identifi ed in this respect: creation of families of new terms and formation of new terms in accordance with the principles followed in earlier terminology. Concurrently, other factors, which lie beyond the realm of contrastive linguistics, are pointed as the reasons for the existing diversity in terminology. Th ey are around the concept of sociolinguistic domains, in accordance with sett ing and participant framework. One of the reasons for not forming calques can be associated with the etymology of terms which inhibits this process.
Keywords: semantic calque, structural calque, borrowing, doublettes, terminology, domain analysis, corpus study.